Selasa, 21 September 2010

IF-Clause / Conditional Sentence

IF-Clause / Conditional Sentence


1. The Zero Conditional (Type 0)
The zero conditional is a structure used for talking about general truths, or scientific facts -- things which always happen under certain conditions.

A zero conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause (note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"). For example:
If the "if" clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the "if" clause comes second, there is no need for a comma.
The simple present tense is the tense use in both clauses. Examples:
If you cross an international date line, the time changes.
Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air.



2. First Conditional (Type I)
The first conditional (also called conditional type 1) is a structure used for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future.Type 1: if + present + future.

Example:
If I have the money, I will buy this car.
If it's sunny, we'll go to the park.
Peter will be sad if Susan leaves.
If you cook dinner, I'll wash the dishes.

Among other variations the structure if + present + present is also possible. It is used when the results are habitual or automatic. Example: If a commodity is in short, supply prices tend to rise.


3. Second Conditional (Type II)
The second conditional (also called conditional type 2) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future.Type 2: if + past + conditional

Example:
If I had the money, I would buy this car. (Since I do not have the money I cannot buy any new car). The action in type 2 is characterized by unreality.
If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain.
If dogs had wings, they would be able to fly.
Paula would be sad if Jan left.


4. Third Conditional (Type III)
The third conditional (also called conditional type 3) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past. In other words, it is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. Type 3: if + past perfect + perfect conditional
Full form : If I had studied harder, I probably would have passed the exam.
Contracted form :If I'd studied harder, I probably would've passed the exam.

Example:
If I had had the money, I would have bought this Audi. (But I did not have it, and so did not buy).
If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident. (You had an accident because you didn't drive carefully enough.)
If we had played a little better, we could have won the game.(We didn't play well, so we lost the game.)
The action in type 3 is characterized by impossibility.

While type 1 and type 2 focus on the present or future, the time in type 3 is the past and signifies a completed action in the past. The condition, therefore, cannot be fulfilled because the action in the if-clause did not happen. 


5. Wish Sentences
The verb wish expresses a desire for a situation that does not exist right now in the present. A wish is a desire to change a real situation into an unreal one. The unreal situation is expressed in the simple past. For example:
I wish I lived in a house. I live in an apartment.
Wish sentences often express regret about a situation that you would like to change e.g.
A:Can you help me? B: No, I'm sorry. I wish I could, but I have an appointment.

In order to express future actions that you want to happen , you use would e.g.
I wish the bus would come. I'm cold.
I wish you'd have a car to take me to the beach.
I wish I were thin.
I wish I hadn't said that. (If fact, I said it)


-Source-


Gerunds
A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition.

Gerund as subject:

* Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)
* The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as direct object:

* They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
* They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed)

Gerund as subject complement:

* My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
* My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.)

Gerund as object of preposition:

* The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
* The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.)

A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as:

The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.

Finding (gerund)
a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate.
I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity.

my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund)
offering (gerund)
you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.
Newt's favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents.

lying to (gerund)
his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for.
You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work.

faking (gerund)
an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)

The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence.
Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.

Being (gerund)
the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund)


Punctuation
A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it.


Points to remember:

1. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun.
2. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
3. Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.

-Source-
Irfan Irawan
Irfan Irawan

I have graduated from NIIT-Telkom Center then continuing with Degree of Telkom Polytechnic Bandung, while working i've graduated from ISTN Jakarta. I Like of writing, researching something new and also documenting knowledge i've learned during work on multinational company. Absolutely, all of this must be shared to another ~the life means to reach the high end~ This is the meaning of my Moslem name "Irfan"

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