Past Perfect ~ Past Perfect Continuous - Al-Muhibbin Indonesia

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Selasa, 21 September 2010

Past Perfect ~ Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect

FORM
[had + past participle]

Examples:
* You had studied English before you moved to New York.
* Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
* You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past


The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.


Examples:
* I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
* I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
* Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
* Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
* She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
* Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
* We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
* A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

Examples:
* We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
* By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
* They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.


IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.

Example:
* She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER


If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.

Examples:
* She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
* She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER

If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Examples:
* She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
* She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
* Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

-Source-


Past Perfect Continuous

FORM

[had been + present participle]

Examples:
* You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
* Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
* You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past


We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.

Examples:
* They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
* She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
* How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
* Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
* James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
* A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past


Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.

Examples:
* Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
* Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
* Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous
If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:
* He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment.
* He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.

Examples:
* The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
* The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:
* You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.
* Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?

-Source-

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